The purpose of this study was to describe the transformational leadership
of head nurses in five Finnish university hospitals as evaluated by the
head nurses and nurses.
Data was collected from the head nurses (N = 481) and their constituent nurses (N = 2,405) in five
Finnish university hospitals. Head nurses (N = 13) from three university hospitals participated in
focus group interviews. Respondents completed the Leadership Practices Inventory (Self and
Observer) in Finish. The word used for "leader" was "human resource manager."
According to assessments from both the head nurses and ward nurses the frequency rank order of
the leadership practices used by the head nurses was Enabling Others to Act, followed by Modeling
the Way, Encouraging the Heart, Inspiring a Shared Vision, and Challenging the Process. The
frequency scores from the head nurses (Self) were all high higher than those from the nurses in
general (Observers). Some differences were found in leadership assessments between both
hospitals and wards within the hospitals in the ward nurses group.
The author concludes: "The transformational leadership of the head nurses of the Finnish
university hospitals' emerged by Enabling Others to Act. The head nurses used Modelling the Way
in their leadership, which means reasoned and systematic leadership. Encouraging the Heart
meant supporting, encouraging and realistically rewarding the nurses. Inspiring Shared Vision
meant co-operation and the use of experts in planning the goals and evaluating their achievement. The head nurses' moderation in making reformation and thus securing the fundamental operations
manifested Challenging the Process."
*NOTE: The above information comes from the English-language version of the abstract, and the
complete dissertation is available only in Finnish.