Secondary Education Managers/Executives/Administrators
To determine whether significant differences in leadership practices exist
between school-based and centralized-management administrators and teachers.
The sample was comprised of 118 school-based and 114
centralized-managed administrators and teachers from 457 public elementary and
secondary schools in four randomly selected states (South Carolina, Mississippi,
Wisconsin, and Michigan) across the United States. An administrator, along with the
fifth teacher on his/her teacher index, participated. The overall survey response rate was
29 percent; 44 percent of the responses were from administrators. The LPI was modified
so that respondents marked the frequency with which they believed that each of the
leadership behaviors “were being practiced o their campus”.
Overall, there were significant differences in the leadership practices
associated with school-based and centralized-management districts. There were
significant differences in all five leadership practices between the perceptions of teachers
and administrators. Significant differences were also found between teachers and
administrators within school-based and especially centralized-management districts
(where teachers perceptions were consistently lower than the views of administrators).
Perceptions about the frequency of leadership actions and behaviors were consistently
higher in school-based districts than in centralized-management districts.
Differences were not found between school-based and centralized-management
respondents based upon interactions between (1) kind of school (elementary or
secondary), (2) kind of school and type of program (school-based vs. centralizedmanagement),
(3) kind of school and position (administrator or teacher), or (4) kind of
school, type of program, and position. Neither respondent state or school district size
significantly affected the results.