The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between
transformational leader behaviors and various employee outcome variables.
The population consisted of leader-follower dyads from a
company engaged in the running of amusement centers in Metro Manila and in the
provinces. There were 41 leaders (93% response rate) and 103 subordinates (92%
response rate) who participated. The typical leader was male (66%), 30 years old,
college-educated (76%) and employed by the company for an average of six years,
while the average subordinate was male (63%), college-educated (76%), 27 years
old, with the company for five years, and with their supervisor for two years.
Respondents completed the Leadership Practices Inventory, and measures of job
satisfaction (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951), trust (Podsakoff, et al., 1990),
organizational commitment (Mowday, Steers & Porter, 1979), organizational
citizenship dimensions of obedience, organizational and social participation (Van
Dyne et al., 1994), voice and helping (Van Dyne & Le Pine, 1998), and courtesy
(Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1989). The survey instruments were all translated into
All five leadership practices were significantly correlated with
the Trust in Leader and Organizational Commitment scales. Challenging and
Encouraging were significantly correlated with Job Satisfaction. Only the Voice
and Helping dimensions of Organizational Citizenship behaviors revealed any
significant relationships with leadership behaviors. Helping was correlated with
Inspiring, Enabling and Encouraging, while Voice was correlated with Enabling
and Modeling. Obedience, Social Participation, Functional Participation, and
Courtesy were not significantly related to any of the leadership behaviors.
Multiple regression analyses revealed that Modeling was significantly related to
Job Satisfaction, Inspiring for Trust in Leader, Encouraging for Organizational
Commitment, and Enabling for Helping Behavior.
Canonical correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship
between transformational leader behaviors (the five leadership practices) and
employee attitudes (R2 = .26). No significant relationships were found in the
canonical analysis between leadership behaviors and organizational citizenship
“The results showed that transformational leader behaviors had a
significant positive relationships with employee attitudes. This finding suggests
that when leaders challenge, inspire, enable, model, and encourage, they influence
the attitude of followers and move them to reciprocate by showing more
satisfaction with their job, exhibiting more trust in their leaders, and demonstrating
greater commitment to the organization” (p. 163).