To determine whether traditional leadership practices differed from
nontraditional leadership practices in relation to the sex of the leader.
The sample involved 250 men and a similar number of women managers
selected from a population of five Southern California companies ("a major computer firm,
two major aerospace corporations, a computer supply company, and a radio and aerospace
parts report corporation"). Seventy-three people responded (14.6% response rate); 32 men
and 41 women. The Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (Fleishman, 1960)--assessing
consideration and structure--was used to measure traditional leadership. The LPI was used
to assess nontraditional leadership factors. Various demographic information was also
No significant differences in either traditional or nonconventional
leadership behaviors were found between male and female respondents. Initiating Structure was significantly (p < .05) correlated with Challenging the Process, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart. Initiating Consideration was significantly (p < .01) correlated with Modeling the Way and Inspiring a Shared Vision.
There were no significant differences on the LPI by respondent age or marital
status. Higher educational levels were associated with greater use of Enabling Others to
Act and Encouraging the Heart. Those with greater amounts of management training were
more likely to Enable Others to Act than were those with less managerial training
experiences. Finally, the only LPI dimension to vary by respondent position was Inspiring
a Shared Vision, with those at higher levels reporting more frequency with this practice
than their lower level counterparts.