Secondary Education Principals/Superintendents
To determine if there is a difference in the principals' leadership
practices in schools that have low parental involvement as compared to schools with
middle and high parental involvement.
Random sample of Michigan's elementary school principals
completed the LPI-Self (N=337; 55% response rate), Long Parental Involvement Scale
(19-items), and provided demographic information (170 men and 154 women; 89%
Caucasian, 10% Black; 33% rural settings, 55% suburban and 12% urban school districts;
30% fewer than 5 years experience as principal, 36% between 6-12 years, and 34% more
than 13 years).
LPI-Self scores significantly correlated with levels of parental
involvement; ANOVA indicated significant differences between low, moderate and high
levels of parental involvement. No differences due to type of population served or
principals' years of experience. Female principals had higher LPI scores, regardless of
parental involvement levels, than did their male counterparts. "This study demonstrated
the impact of leadership practices that challenge, inspire, enable, model and encourage
(the five LPI-Self factors) on implementing parental involvement activities in elementary schools" (130).