To develop a Spanish-language version of the Leadership Practices
Inventory and to examine its reliability as applied to a group of Mexican managers.
The sample involved 83 people, including 22 managers and their
subordinates (24 men and 37 women). The manager's average age was 37 years. More than
two-thirds of all respondents held university degrees. About 10 percent of the
subordinates had been working with their manager for over three years and another 32
percent had been working with their manager between one to three years. The tenure of
the remainder was less than one year, but a minimum of one month.
Internal reliability (standardized Cronbach Alphas) for the five leadership
scales ranged from .81 to .89. Managers reported significantly higher scores on Enabling
and Encouraging than reported by their constituents, and there were no statistically
significant differences between these two groups on Challenging, Inspiring, or Modeling.
In a relative sense, the leadership practices of Encouraging and Inspiring were engaged
in least frequently by Mexican managers. Significant differences were not found between
male and female managers on the LPI-Self; and male and female constituents were
significantly different only on the Modeling practice (with men providing higher
assessments than females). Higher scores were generally found on all five leadership
practices as a function of the length of working experience between the managers and their
subordinates. Respondent age did not affect LPI scores. Overall, leadership scores of
Mexican managers were, on average, lower than their U.S. counterparts but in the same
More than seven professionals were involved in the English-to-Spanish, and
Spanish-to-English, translations and re-translations of the LPI using an iterative process
until complete agreement was reached. Through these efforts the author concludes:
"...meanings of the LPI in Spanish are valid and reliable among the Mexican population."
This thesis is available only in Spanish.