Secondary Education Principals/Superintendents
To identify common practices of effective leaders and to determine if these
practices were demonstrated by effective school administrators.
Participants were the principals of 10 New York State elementary
schools selected by the U.S. Department of Education as 1993-94 Blue Ribbon Schools of
Excellence. The 10 schools consisted of four suburban, four mid-size city, and two small
town schools, and ranged in size from 240 to 974 students. Principals completed the LPISelf,
and superintendents, PTA presidents and faculties completed the LPI-Observer. Two
randomly selected principals were interviewed and completed the Kouzes-Posner Personal
Best Leadership Experience questionnaire. Seven of the principals were female.
“The principals were perceived as effective leaders exhibiting the
leadership characteristics as identified by Kouzes' and Posner's Leadership Practices
Inventory” (p. 244). The author also reports “congruency between the principals' and
faculties' perception of the principals' leadership effectiveness” (p. 244) as well as
“congruency between principals' and superintendents' perception” (p. 247), and
“principals' and PTA presidents' perception” (p. 251).
“The results of this study support the assertion that while there is no single
leadership style which will ensure effective leadership, there does exist a core of leadership
characteristics that are possessed in varying degrees by effective leaders” (p. 262).