Secondary Education Principals/Superintendents
The purpose of this study was to determine if the leadership
behavioral practices of female and male high school principals were similar or
The Leadership Practices Inventory - Individual
Contributor (LPI-IC) form was send to a random sample of 300 (100 females and
200 males) of the 898 public high school principals in California. The response
rate was 45 percent (N=123; 79 males and 44 females). The typical principal had
served six years, with an average of 13 years as a teacher.
While female principals generally reported higher scores than
their male counterparts on the five leadership practices, there were no statistically
significant differences between the two groups on Challenging, Enabling, and
Encouraging. On both Inspiring and Modeling, the scores of female principals
were higher than those of male principals.
Number of years as a principal was not correlated with any of the five
leadership practices; and the same was true for number of schools as a high school
principal. Challenging and Inspiring were significantly correlated with number of
years as a teacher.