Higher Education Managers/Executives/Administrators
To examine the perceptions of coaches' own leadership behaviors, athletes'
perceptions of their coaches' behaviors, and satisfaction with those leadership behaviors.
The population consisted of California community college head
coaches of team sports in which there was a male and female equivalent through the Blue
Book of College Athletics (Beazley, 1997). Respondents (N=225) completed the Leadership
Practices Inventory (Self), with 57 percent supplying usable surveys N=129). The sample
of athletes (N=280) were taken from the men's and women's soccer teams of the head
soccer coaches (n=29) included in the total coaching sample. Fifty-five percent (N=154)
of these athletes responded by completing the LPI-Observer and the Scale of Athlete
Satisfaction (Chelladurai et al, 1988). Overall, more female coaches (72%) and male athletes (65%) responded.
No significant differences were found between male and female coaches
on four leadership practices (Challenging, Inspiring, Enabling and Modeling). Female
coaches reported making more use of Encouraging than their male counterparts. Overall,
the leadership practices of coaches were more similar than different between coaches from
different sports. For female coaches, their LPI-Self scores were lower than the scores
provided them by their student athletes (on the LPI-Observer), with the greatest difference
in the area of Inspiring. The opposite was true for male coaches, however, with their scores
always higher than those from their student athletes, with the greatest difference in the area
Athlete satisfaction, according to the researcher, "is related to congruence between
the perceptions of female coaches and athletes regarding leadership behavior. Female
athletes were 'Satisfied' and in most agreement with male and female coaches; while they
were 'Extremely Satisfied' and in a great deal of agreement with only female coaches. On
the other hand, male athletes were 'Satisfied' yet in low agreement with their male coaches"