This study focuses on senior managers' use of technical, political, and
cultural dimensions in the change process, as well as middle managers' perceptions of
senior managers' behaviors in these areas and their overall leadership effectiveness.
Participants included six members of the senior management staff
and 30 department heads reporting to senior management in an acute care hospital. The
large-scale organizational change questionnaire, adapted from Tichy (1983), consisted
of 6 items for each for measuring the technical, political, and cultural aspects of change..
Mailed to homes, with follow-up reply cards, yielded a 100 percent response rate. The
Kouzes and Posner (1987) Leadership Effectiveness Scale was used to measure
transformational leadership effectiveness. Interviews were also conducted with key
No significant relationships were found between senior managers'
attitudes and their self-reported use of various change behaviors; nor were
relationships found between senior managers' change attitudes and their effectiveness
as perceived by their direct reports, although a significant relationship was found
between their attitudes and the view that they were effective in managing change by
their direct reports.