Higher Education Managers/Executives/Administrators
To determine whether transformational leadership of head coaches and
athletic directors in NCAA Division III institutions was related to success (win-loss
The sample consisted of all athletic directors and head coaches with
at least three years in their position from two independent midwest conferences. Athletic
directors (N=11) completed the LPI-Self, while the LPI-Observer (N=65) was completed by
the head coaches reporting to the athletic director, as well as the latter's immediate
supervisor (N=6). Head football coaches (N=11) completed the LPI-Self, while their LPIObservers
were the assistant football coaches (N=20), their athletic director (10), and five
senior football players (N=55). For all other male head coaches (N=16) the LPI-Observer
(N=100) was completed by five senior student-athletes from their team, as was true for the
female head coaches (N=18) and senior student-athletes from their team (N=79). All
individual responses were voluntary and confidential.
Institutional athletic team success was not significantly correlated with
the leadership practices of athletic directors, as reported by their head coaches. Modeling
the way was viewed by the athletic director's supervisor as significantly related to success.
Team success was unrelated to the leadership practices of head football coaches, as
reported by their supervisors (athletic directors), by themselves, their assistant coaches
Head coaches of other men's sports do not consider their leadership practices
related to success, although players (student-athletes) do consider modeling related to
success. Effective leadership on the part of women's sports correlates highly with a
winning record. Women's sports coaches perceive success related to modeling, and their
players perceive a relationship between success and their coaches leadership (challenging,
enabling, and modeling).
"Findings of the study," the author concludes: "Indicate that there is a relatively low development of transformational leadership with athletic directors and head coaches
partly due to lack of exposure to the transformational model" (145-46).