The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships, if any,
between the spirituality of healthcare managers and their self-perceived effective
A convenience sample of 318 healthcare managers representing
multiple healthcare organizations, including for-profit and not-for-profit enterprises,
completed the LPI-Self and the Spirituality Assessment Scale (Beazley, 1997). The
managers were attending seminars on service excellence (response rate = 80%). The
typical respondent was between the ages of 41-50 years (46%), female (68%), Caucasian
(86%), with at least a college degree (74%), and employed by a for-profit healthcare
enterprise (63%). Cronbach Alpha coefficients were .81 for Challenging, .85 for
Inspiring, .73 for Enabling, .74 for Modeling, and .90 for Encouraging.
The most frequently engaged in leadership practice was Enabling,
followed by Modeling, Encouraging, Challenging and Inspiring. Enabling, Modeling and
Encouraging were significantly correlated with spirituality. ANOVA revealed a
statistically significant difference in these three leadership practices by more spiritual
than on-spiritual managers. The greatest differential in mean scores was on the
Encouraging dimension. A confirmatory factor analysis based model, using Lisrel XIII,
revealed a moderately positive correlation between spirituality and leadership (r = .5).
The author developed a conceptual theory postulating a rationale for the relationship
between spirituality and effective leadership.