Secondary Education Principals/Superintendents
To expand the definitional and theoretical aspects of transformational
leadership as it relates to the leadership behavior of school principals.
The sample was selected from 50 public elementary and middle
schools in North Carolina each, who had been categorized, based upon public data,
into high, average, and low performing groups. Each principal was asked to
complete the LPI and have five teachers complete the LPI-Observer, and each
principal was asked to complete the School Mission Questionnaire (Evers & Bacon,
1994) and provide demographic information. The overall response rate was 46
percent, with 25 responses from the principals of high-performing schools, and 24
and 20 responses respectively from the average and low performing school
LPI scores from principals were not significantly different from
those of the teachers. What was interesting was that the principals’ perception of
the frequency in which they engaged in these five leadership practices was
inversely related to the performance of their schools, and just the opposite was true
for the average teacher LPI scores. That is, in the high performing schools, the
teachers gave their principals the higher LPI scores than did the teachers in average
performing schools, and the latter gave higher scores in turn than did the teachers
from the low performing schools.
A statistically significant relationship was found between teachers’
perceptions of their principals’ leadership behavior on all five practices and the
teachers’ perceptions of school mission. However, the relationship of leadership
behavior and school mission to improved student achievement was not
demonstrated by the results of the study. The author concludes: “The model of
transformational leadership behavior presented by Kouzes and Posner seems to be
supported in schools as indicated by the results of the hypotheses tested (p.
103)……and support the use of the model in public school settings” (p. 104).