Secondary Education Principals/Superintendents
To compare the behaviors of rural school principals, examining their
leadership behaviors and any relationship with school effectiveness.
The sample was limited to school principals and their schools in the
province of Saskatchewan, Canada during the 1988-89 academy year at three types of
schools: elementary, high, and kindergarten to grade twelve, in two types of settings (rural
and urban). Random sample generated responses from 62 principals (69% response rate)
and 450 constituents in the rural setting and the urban sample included 29 (72.5% response
rate) principals and 200 constituents, completing the LPI-Self and LPI-Observer
(respectively), and a modified version of the San Diego County Office of Education
Effective Schools Survey. 86.5% of the principals were men, nearly all held college degrees,
and the majority (48.3%) were between 36-45 years of age, with tenure as a principal being
about 3-7 years (48.3%). Most of the constituents were teachers (72%), men (72%),
between 36-45 years of age (40%), with 3-7 years (44%) at the school.
Significant differences were found in the leadership behaviors of
principals in effective and noneffective schools (NOTE: Principals and teachers
significantly differed in their perceptions of whether a school was effective or not).
Principals perceived significant differences in their Inspiring behaviors. Constituents
(teachers) saw principals' behavior as significantly different in terms of Challenging, while
combining principal and constituent effectiveness assessments resulted in significant
differences for the leadership behavior of Inspiring. No significant differences were found
in the LPI-scores of principals based upon rural or urban setting or upon type of school--
these findings were consistent across principal, constituent, and principal-constituents
combined groupings. Stepwise regression analysis found Inspiring and Enabling to
account for 48.2 percent of the variance around principals' effectiveness (as measured by
constituents; F = 40.86, p < .0001).