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Our Authors’ Research

For over 30 years, authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner have continuously gathered and analyzed data from Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) survey questionnaires for ongoing study and to make refinements to the instrument. The current database includes responses from approximately 1.3 million respondents and is used to produce the normative information contained in the LPI Online Feedback Report.

Explore this section to find the latest information about how we conducted the initial research that ultimately gave birth to The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership®. Here you’ll also find the latest information about the psychometric properties of the LPI, the reliability and validity of additional data that supports the model, and summaries of key findings on the effects of exemplary leadership.