The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) Normative Database — Updated!

The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) Normative Database — Updated!

Dana Schwartz

Highly regarded in both the academic and practitioner world, The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) has been extensively applied in many organizational settings—academia to government, healthcare to technology, non-profits and for-profits. In fact, it is one of the most widely used 360-degree leadership assessment instruments available.

For over 30 years, authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner have continuously gathered and analyzed LPI data for ongoing study and to make refinements to the instrument. Now, the most recent updates are available! Reflecting data gathered through 2010, the current database includes responses from approximately 1.1 million individuals and is used to produce the normative information contained in the LPI Online Feedback Report. Specifically the report's Percentile Ranking can be used for hand-scoring. Additional analysis of the findings is provided in an updated New Norms data sheet. And an analysis by the authors, LPI Online Normative Database, offers additional insight into how the demographic data can be used to describe respondent attributes by gender, education, age, ethnicity, country of origin, etc.

As always, the website includes a description of how we conducted the research underlying The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership® and the reliability and validity of that data.

More research on the web
From Taiwan to Ohio, in healthcare to higher education, every year dozens of academicians and graduate students use the LPI in research projects. In addition to ongoing research by authors Kouzes and Posner, these empirical research studies provide insight into the effectiveness of leaders in a variety of settings and circumstances: amateur sports, acute care nursing, project management, online distance learning, school leadership, U.S. Navy, community health systems, and more.

For an instrument to be used in an academic environment, it must meet rigorous criteria for psychometric testing (unlike internally developed competency surveys). And because of the LPI's demonstrated psychometric properties—including its strong reliability and validity—educators and practitioners alike remain confident in using the LPI to further understand what it takes to be an effective leader. Studies of the LPI continue to confirm the relationship between The Five Practices and a variety of measurable outcomes such as job satisfaction, employee commitment, and sales performance.

To date, nearly 500 academic studies and master's theses have been written using the LPI as a research tool. For the most current research, abstracts, and other important information about the Leadership Practices Inventory and The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership®, visit

Dana Schwartz is Web Product Manager, coordinating the on-going development, sales and marketing of the products on the LPI Online platform: LPI360, LPI Self, StudentLPI, and TLCW Pre-Work. Over a 15+ year period she was a founding partner in three software startups and knows firsthand the importance of leadership in organizations. She can be reached at and welcomes your input and feedback related to "anything LPI!"



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